Of course there are variations on this system. For example, some clinics simply take stem cells and inject them back into patients themselves without handing off to another clinic and may or may not grow them first.
Other clinics do allogeneic transplants from one patient to a different one.
But this interactome largely shows you how adult stem cell clinics work and how the money flows, which for many of the clinics is of course the top priority. Note that the FDA may intercede at any step to “visit” or audit a clinic, potentially leading to actions ranging from nothing to more severe steps such as a warning letter or even involving the FBI.
I’ve highlighted two of the most common triggers for the FDA viewing a stem cell product as “more than minimally manipulated” (you can learn more about that here), but there are many other possible triggers and/or other concerns that the FDA might note.